Manufacturing, recipes and methods of manufacture: soap and washing powder, Perfumes and cosmetics, different materials, Artisans varnishes and colors, Stationery, Food Additives and dyes, Pyrotechnics;
Chemistry and petrochemistry, Construction and Repair, Chemical Industry, Chemistry and Manufacture, Manufactured home and more...
When processing a strong solution of caustic soda, paper yarn fabric and acquire a significant strength and shine.
This treatment, named after its inventor Mercer - mercerization, used for decorating fabrics, making it softer and practiced as a preparatory to the dyeing operation. When handling the material a concentrated solution of sodium hydroxide increases the material strength and compressive fiber at which the material shrinks by about 20% of the original length, which in turn contributes to a better staining with less, consumption of dyes.
The usual way mercerising is that the fabric is immersed in the straightened form of a bath with a strong (30 ° Bome) cold sodium hydroxide solution, whereupon it is washed in cold water, then a weak solution of sulfuric acid, water again and finally pressed and dried. At present (1927) practiced mercerization under tension and mercerization under pressure. These methods give a more silky brilliance and best appearance. Almost mercerization performed with special machines, which reeled yarn or fabric. Sometimes merserizuetsya as yarn in hanks. For best results when mercerising should observe the following conditions:
Yarn must be pre-uniformly and well-broth. To use boiling 4% sodium carbonate, 0.5% contact Petrova or 2% soap by weight of yarn or fabric. Cook 3-4 hours.
The material should go on mercerization well and evenly pressed. By car, the material must be evenly spread out.
The most suitable concentration of sodium hydroxide - 30 ° Bome.
The temperature of the solution should not be above 18 °.
The duration of treatment of 0.5-2 minutes.
When handling sodium hydroxide material should be under tension. Without much stretch yarn sits down and gives a little shine.
The best gloss that approaches the brilliance of silk, can be obtained on the yarn of long staple Egyptian or American cotton sloping special twist.
After thorough washing of the material enters the bleaching or dyeing.
Used as mercerization without tension, mainly for knitwear. In this case, the process is modified as follows.
The material is boiled in the usual way, washed, pressed out and down for 20-30 minutes in a solution of sodium hydroxide at 10-12 ° fortress of Bome. The processing in an ordinary iron barge at room temperature on sticks, as in dyeing. More material is removed, provide drain surplus liquid and rinsing well in cold water. Follow-bleaching and dyeing are made in the usual way.